#TheStoneVirgins is a doubly difficult read, and I could certainly see it being intimidating to some readers. On the one hand it's difficult because of its subject matter: memorializing the brutality and violence of the civil war following #Zimbabwe 's newly gained independence from colonial rule. On the other hand, it's also difficult for eschewing most standard expository historical fiction elements, and indeed, many elements expected of prose fiction itself. This is not a book to read if you want to passively receive a aurhoritative chronology of Zimbabwe at that time. #YvonneVera isn't so much telling of any comprehensive events here, as she is charting a history of emotion and psychology in a few fragile human beings. The style is made to fit that demand. Many readers love Vera's writing and call it rich, lush, prodigiously sensuous and embodied. I feel those things, even if I also wished sometimes that it were more reined in. And I do mean only sometimes: it's just that she also does well with spare and direct language. The effect of most of the prose is that it's hot and fluid, not yet cooled into a precise shape, but full and generous with ideas and sensations. Strangely, without this delivery, I think it could be an even more agonizing read. In a way the style's total intoxication with the world makes it possible for the book to carry the scenes of atrocity with a unique respect and honesty. I felt like I couldn't get the kind of emotional exposure this book offers elsewhere, and that a privilege was shared with me. Not always an enlightening read, and not a comforting one, but a transporting one. I wish it weren't Vera's final work.
ABOUT #ZIMBABWE AND IT'S #ECONOMY
First, #Zimbabwe is a landlocked country, located in #SouthernAfrica , between the '#Zambezi ' and 'Limpopo Rivers ', bordered by South Africa, Botswana, #Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is HARARE. A country rouply 16 million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, #Shona and Ndebele the most commonly used. .
. In the 1880s, white colonists arrived with #CecilRhodes 's British South Africa Company (BSAC). In 1888, Rhodes(A British #Business Man) obtained a concession for mining rights from King #Lobengula of the #Ndebele peoples. .
He presented this concession to persuade the government of the #UnitedKingdom to grant a
royal charter to the company over
#Matabeleland , and its subject states such as
Mashonaland as well. .
Rhodes used this document in 1890 to justify sending the Pioneer #Column , a group of #Europeans protected by well-armed British South Africa Police (BSAP) through Matabeleland and into Shona territory to establish Fort Salisbury (now Harare ), and thereby establish #company rule over the area. .
In 1893 and 1894, with the help of their new
Maxim guns, the BSAP would go on to defeat the Ndebele in the First Matabele War . Rhodes additionally sought permission to negotiate similar concessions covering all territory between the Limpopo River and #Lake Tanganyika , then known as "Zambesia".
In accordance with the terms of aforementioned concessions and treaties, mass settlement was encouraged, with the #British maintaining control over labour as well as precious metals and other mineral resources. .
In 1895, the BSAC adopted the name " Rhodesia " for the territory, in honour of Rhodes. In 1898 " Southern Rhodesia " became the official name for the region south of the Zambezi, which later became Zimbabwe. The region to the north was administered separately and later termed
Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia ). Shortly after Rhodes' disastrous Jameson Raid on the South African Republic, the Ndebele rebelled against white rule, led by their charismatic religious leader, Mlimo. NB: (The first Matabele War lasted from 1893-1894)......#Zimbabwe#history#africa
Can you help? The #Matabeleland football team is URGENTLY searching for supporters to fund their squad for the Human Rights Cup, taking place in a few days' time.
If you can donate anything to the team, no matter how small, please check out the link in the bio ⬆️⬆️⬆️ (📸 by Chris Hansen)
4th of December marked 125 years of Mthwakazi/Matebeleland struggle
The most decisive battle of the Matabele War of 1893 was fought between the Matabele Warriors, under the leadership of Lobengula, and the British forces, under the command of Major Patrick Forbes, at Bembesi on 1 November 1893. Cecil John Rhodes, Premier of South Africa, had ordered British Administrator Leander Jameson to set up the 1893 Campaign.
On 1 November 1893 the Matabele warriors carried out a frontal assault on the British forces, demonstrating their courage. They had 80 000 spearmen and 20 000 riflemen, against fewer than 700 British soldiers, but the Ndebele warriors were no match against the British Maxim guns.
Lobengula fled after the defeat at Bembesi but not before deciding to burn his capital Bulawayo to the ground rather than allow it to be captured by the British. The British captured the ruined Bulawayo on 4 November. A detachment of troops under Major Alan Wilson were sent to pursue Lobengula, they followed him across the Shangani River but they were cut off by the king's amabutho on 4 December. Efforts by Commanding Officer Forbes' column to re-enforce the patrol were too little and too late. The ensuing battle and eventual loss of 34 British soldiers became known simply as the Shangani Patrol. However, by this stage the Ndebele had lost.
CONTRARY TO WHAT THE PHOTO ILLUSTRATES KING LOBENGULA'S DEATH STILL REMAINS UNKOWN.
Rodgers Alfred Nikita Mangena, born Rodgers Alfred Mangena in the Maranda area, commanded the Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army, the militant branch of the Zimbabwe African People's Union, in the Rhodesian Bush War. Lookout Masuku led ZIPRA after Mangena's death in 1978.
When Zapu’s military wing was reconstituted and renamed Zimbabwe People’s Revolutionary Army (Zipra) in 1971 following the departure of the Chikerema-Nyandoro group, Cde Mangena was appointed Commander of Zipra with Jason Ziyaphapha Moyo as acting Commander-in-Chief. Cde Mangena also became a member of the Zimbabwe’s People’s Revolutionary Council.
Under his command, Zipra matured and grew from strength to strength and developed into a well-organised and disciplined force within a short space of time.
According to Zapu, Mangena had been visiting some Zipra bases near the border with Rhodesia when his vehicle was hit by a landmine.He died on the scene for lack of medical attention. There has been controversy surrounding his death, some claiming it was politically motivated.
A whole generation has grown up with little knowledge of these men. Instead we have endless glorification of people who came through the liberation war and who have gone on to become rich. But those who died to put these people in their current positions are almost forgotten.
Definition - the great road. Indeed he was a great road. A road leading his people to new ideologies, new ideas and new concepts. The concept of togetherness, harmony. A new democrcay which ultimately shapes our world today.
The history of Mzilikazi’s journey from South Africa, proved to be one of a humble but easily one of the bravest that ever did it. The strength and the leadership skills he must of had would have probably been monumental. It’s important, to know what your ancestors did in order for you to move forward, change and adapt. It’s easy to forget where you come from, such is the ceremony of uMemulo which has been completely wiped from present day Ndebele people. This was a ceremony which welcomed girls into womanhood, she would receive wisdom from the older women and money to start her off.
Mzilikazi Khumalo were part of Zwide’s Ndwandwe State, later joining the Tshaka Zulu State. He broke away from Tshaka in 1822 in one of the internal conflicts that occurred during the Zulu expansion.
They numbered about 300 young warriors and women altogether, this was the nuclear that formed the Ndebele nation. They crossed the Drakensberg mountains and settled at various places in the Transvaal region of South Africa. On their way north from South Africa they recruited (by raiding neighbouring ethnic groups) and absorbed a large number of Sotho speaking and Tswana speaking people.
However Mzilikazi quickly remembered the lesson of Togetherness he was taught by his Grandfather.
Zwide taught him how to rule people of the different origins and customs. He quickly began to build the biggest, most peaceful democracy Southern Africa had ever seen, including people from different cultures.
Written by Nomvula Nyatela (Email - firstname.lastname@example.org)
WAS THERE REALLY A UNITY ACCORD?
For those that know me.... well......i'm not going to bit about the bush but will be straight to the point.
Joshua Nkomo (Umdala Wethu) only agreed with this Accord (1987) to save the people of Matebeleland and Midlands who were massacred during the infamous Gukurahundi masterminded by Mugabe and his late crony Enos Nkala.
Yes more than 20 000 innocent souls were butchered and Dr Joshua Mqabuko Nkomo had no choice but to save a possible extinction of izizukulwane zikaMambo loMzilikazi KaMatshobana.
So in this Accord, Zanu PF had the honours to retain their party name, their party symbol and had their leader automatically being named the leader of the "New Party Zanu PF", whiled PF Zapu salvaged Zanu PF’s second Vice-President post and the National Chairmanship. All Properties of Zapu were confiscated. So in your own senses what did Zapu remain with? Nothing!
We are constantly told of how Zanla Forces fought the liberation struggle to emancipate people of Zimbabwe from the Ian Smith regime. What happened to the ZIPRA Forces and their gallant fights in Zambia? Very little are told about how greatly Kenneth Kaunda and Zambians helped shape up Zimbabwe's Independence.
Little are told that ZAPU is the oldest Party that masterminded the Liberation struggle and was formed out of ANC which the great Statesman Nelson Mandela and Oliver Tambo were the architects. How Botswana and Ian Khama played a roll in establishing this revolution.
Slowly but surely Bulawayo and Matebeleland have been infiltrated by ZanuPf in a bid to eradicate its diverse cultures and languages.
THE SAD STORY OF KING LOBENGULA'S CHILDREN
When the Rhodesian White supremacist settlers destroyed the Matabele state in 1893, Cecil John Rhodes' British South Africa company made it clear that they were not going to allow anyone to become King ever again. They (Rhodesians) IMPLEMENTED A CONSTITUTION WHICH IS STILL BEING ENFORCED TODAY BY THE Zanupf Government which prevents anyone to revive the Ndebele throne.
With that declaration, Lobengula's children, especially his sons ; Njube Mpezeni, Nguboyenja and Sidojiwe were thrust onto the centre stage. According to Nguni traditions (inkosi izala inkosi) only these 3 were eligible to claim the kingship.They were removed from Rhodesia and sent to Cape Town in 1894 where since they were young they went to school to be educated in Western culture to forget about their own and the Ndebele kingship.
Other sons such as Nyamende and Tshakalisa who had been born before Lobengula had become king and were not eligible to become king according to tradition were simply frustrated by the settlers and were never allowed to make any kingship claims. They eventually died after leading miserable lives.
Njube had two sons, named Rhodes and Albert who eventually came to Rhodesia and settled among their people. However the colonial government heard about this and decided to exile them back to South Africa in the early 1930s.
A year ago we were in Nkyani, Matabeleland, Zimbabwe, speaking to teachers, administrators and students about the opportunities and challenges they face in rural Zimbabwe.
Equality of opportunity affects people near and far, the better we understand the challenges, the more effectively we are able to build processes and interventions that remove blocks to opportunity for everyone.
Wondering about how your organisation can have the most impact? Get in touch.
In the 1980s I worked at St James School in Zimbabwe. When it was established in the 1950's it was the first secondary school in the country for Zimbabwean girls. It's aim was to give girls from rural Matabeleland a quality education. It now has a long history of educating girls who have gone on to work in all the professions from medicine to administration and management. I am still involved with a small charity which provides bursaries for girls who could not afford to be educated otherwise. We also help finance a feeding scheme for primary age pupils and medicines for the clinic which supports the local community. I am printing this card to raise funds for this charity. If you would like to purchase some, DM me for details.
It was a hot day, but ladies dressed up their babies and socialized at the health center in Garanyemba in Gwanda District. Amalima distributes USAID fortified porridge and oil for pregnant women and caregivers of children under 2 to protect against malnutrition at this critical period of children's development. #cnfa#orapzenzele#usaid#matabeleland
These portraits reflect the happy mood of people getting a good deal. These rural community members I met participate in Amalima trainings so can purchase subsidized vouchers for agricultural assets and inputs like wheelbarrows, plows, shovels and small grains seeds. Over 1500 people purchased vouchers in 2018 using "mobile money" through their phones. #usaid#cnfa#orapzenzele#matabeleland#zimbabwe
Amalima works with community groups to support women's ownership of assets. One of these
groups, Hanani (whose name means Happiness) started saving to cover the cost of unexpected and major family expenses. Now they're investing in goat breeding with a matching grant through Amalima. One member Sithembile Bhechu provides veterinary services for her community now. Like many of the women I met who are widows or whose husbands are far off in South Africa trying to earn money, she is primarily responsible for her family's welfare. The group started working with Amalima in 2014 and has received training in the savings & lending; planning & management; conservation agriculture, and livestock management. #usaid#cnfa#orapzenzele#zimbabwe#matabeleland