I talked about pipetting before, and then realized that while for me pipetting is a basic skill, some of you might have no clue what I am talking about. So here a crash course on pipetting. First, what is pipetting? Pipetting is basically adding or removing predefined tiny liquid volumes to or from a liquid.
Pipetting is done with pipettes, such as the two you see on the picture. By moving your thumb up and down on the top, you suck up or spit out liquid into or out of the pipette tip, the blue thing at the bottom of the pipette I am holding. You can set a pipette to a certain volume (such as 0.5 ml on the one lying down) to control the amount of liquid being displaced.
In labs studying gene expression or working with bacteria or cell cultures - basically labs dealing with tiny things - pipettes are the most basic equipment around. They are the equipment we use every single day in the lab. Equipment we more or less take for granted. It allows the transfer of tiny little volumes that would be hard to measure in a measuring cup ánd it gives tight control over the amounts that are transferred.
Control is very important, since you want all of your samples (for example RNA from a plant grown with bacteria and RNA from a plant grown without bacteria) to get exactly the same treatment, otherwise any differences you find might be due to differences in the experimental procedures. *
We actually have different kinds of pipettes in the lab. I will post some examples in later posts!
Today on Toxicology Tuesday, let’s discuss everyone’s favourite Group One Carcinogen (except for bacon, maybe): ethanol!
Ethanol is a simple, two-carbon alcohol that is naturally produced by yeast as a by-product of sugar metabolism (which we can employ to produce a range of alcoholic drinks), and synthetically produced for a number of industrial purposes. The World Health Organisation reports an estimated 3.3 million deaths per year due to alcohol consumption, which is nearly 6% of all deaths.
When ingested, ethanol travels through the bloodstream to all organs, and quickly enters the brain where it is a central nervous system depressant and acts on GABA, NDMA and some opioid receptors. It also inhibits release of our old friend acetylcholine, and interacts with serotonin and noradrenaline receptors.
Depending on the dose (e.g. a pint at the pub vs. a weekend of tequila shots), the effects can range from euphoria and impaired judgement to vomiting, ataxia, hypothermia and coma or death.
Around 90% of the ethanol present in drinks is metabolised by the liver, via alcohol dehydrogenase, acetaldehyde and aldehyde dehydrogenase into acetate. The rest is typically excreted via the urine, sweat and breath.
It is the conversion of ethanol into acetaldehyde that increases the risk of various cancers in those who drink alcohol, although there is evidence that this risk has a genetic link as well. As well as cancer, long-term excessive consumption (either daily or in the form of binge-drinking) can lead to hepatitis and liver failure, impaired brain development (especially in teens and young adults),Type 2 diabetes and psychosis. Ethanol is also a known teratogen, meaning that no amount is safe to consume at any point during pregnancy.
On the plus side, there is evidence that infrequent to moderate consumption can have a protective effect against cardiovascular problems, dementia and insulin resistance.
Interestingly, ethanol is also an antidote to methanol, and is administered in cases of methanol poisoning. It works by competing with methanol for the enzymes required for their metabolism, thus slowing this down (continued in comments)
ИНСТРУКЦИЯ ПО ДИАГНОСТИКЕ, ЧАСТЬ 2: МЕРКУРИЙ В I ДОМЕ
Автор: Юлия Субботина
Функции, за которые отвечает планета: интерпретация происходящего вокруг с позиции рацио, перевод ощущений в мысли/тексты, процесс восприятия информации и работа с ней, речь, общение, характер обучаемости – как проще усваивать новые знания, процесс выполнения привычной деятельности (не начало чего-то нового, а именно продолжение), координация движений.
Определяем дом Меркурия в Вашей карте:
1⃣Строим карту на www.mylablife.ru/astro или в любой другой астропрограмме (подробная статья, как это сделать – #субботина_учимсястроитькарту )
3⃣Ведём взглядом по часовой стрелке до ближайшего куспида (= «палочка», пересекающая круг), рядом с которым стоит либо римская цифра, либо буквенное обозначение (AS = I, IC = IV, DS = VII, MC = X), это и будет дом планеты.
❗Первый дом добавляет силы любой планете. Чем ближе она к асценденту, тем ярче проявлена.
Проблемный Меркурий в I доме:
✖пустая беспрерывная болтовня;
✖поверхностность, интересно всё обо всём, но до конца начатое не доводит; ⤵️⤵️⤵️
Once I drew a fish and a crab on a piece of tissue paper while I was waiting for the vacuum oven to release the vacuum. Since then, I can find something new drawn by someone else in the lab almost every time. How lovely my lab-mates are! Though I still have no idea who else drew this😆#lablife#lab#drawing#littlethings
One of our new investigators Tristan hard at work in the CCRG lab.
He is measuring cytokines in plasma as part of his research to help identify an abnormal inflammatory response after heart transplantation. ❤️🔬👍