This is the south gate (南門) from the old hengchun (恆春, which is in the deep south of taiwan) city walls, and there is a story here: in 1871 a group of japanese fisherman were shipwrecked near southern tip of taiwan, and most of the 66 members of the crew were subsequently killed by local paiwan (排灣) aborigines. Taiwan had at the time been part of the qing empire since 1683, which i mentioned in an earlier post, but by all accounts it was for the most part a neglected backwater, especially the south, east, and central mountains, which were all considered savage territory. The qing government also differentiated between "cooked" aborigines, who mingled with the han chinese population, and "raw" aborigines, who kept to themselves, and they refused the japanese government's demand for compensation on the grounds that paiwan aborigines were savages and outside of their jurisdiction. The japanese then mounted a punitive campain (which was also likely intended to be a test of the qing dynasty's hold on taiwan), and in 1874 invaded the south. It was later resolved with the help british arbitration, and the qing goverment agreed to pay the japanese a sum of money (abouth 18.7 tonnes of silver) to compensate them for their property damage. The incident also encouraged the qing to strengthen their hold on abiriginal territory. This wall in 恆春 was built in 1875, and that same year, the qing launched their own punitive campaign against the 排灣 aborigines, which ended in humiliating failure. They were ambushed, and 250 of the 300 qing soldiers were killed. The remaining 50 retreated to takow (打狗) which is what kaohsiung (高雄) was called at the time.