“When Alexander the Great pushed his way east, he did more than just create a Greek Empire. He also spread the Hellenic culture wherever he conquered. One such influence was the great Library of Alexandria, which is considered to be the largest library in the ancient world. Alexandria itself was founded in 331 BC and it is commonly believed that the library followed shortly after around 300 BC. Though the library was founded after Alexander’s death, in many ways, it is a tribute to all that he accomplished. When the library at Alexandria was burned, most of its scrolls were destroyed. It is hard to know how many of these works were actually recovered. However, the assumption is that much of it was lost. ” (greekboston.com) ❓❓❓ What was the Hellenistic kingdom based in ancient Egypt?
Norwegian Roald Amundsen becomes the first explorer to reach the South Pole, beating his British rival, Robert Falcon Scott.
Amundsen, born in Borge, near Oslo, in 1872, was one of the great figures in polar exploration. In 1897, he was first mate on a Belgian expedition that was the first ever to winter in the Antarctic. In 1903, he guided the 47-ton sloop Gjöa through the Northwest Passage and around the Canadian coast, the first navigator to accomplish the treacherous journey. Amundsen planned to be the first man to the North Pole, and he was about to embark in 1909 when he learned that the American Robert Peary had achieved the feat.
Amundsen completed his preparations and in June 1910 sailed instead for Antarctica, where the English explorer Robert F. Scott was also headed with the aim of reaching the South Pole. In early 1911, Amundsen sailed his ship into Antarctica’s Bay of Whales and set up base camp 60 miles closer to the pole than Scott. In October, both explorers set off–Amundsen using sleigh dogs, and Scott employing Siberian motor sledges, Siberian ponies, and dogs. On December 14, 1911, Amundsen’s expedition won the race to the Pole and returned safely to base camp in late January.
Scott’s expedition was less fortunate. The motor sleds broke down, the ponies had to be shot, and the dog teams were sent back as Scott and four companions continued on foot. On January 18, 1912, they reached the pole only to find that Amundsen had preceded them by over a month. Weather on the return journey was exceptionally bad–two members perished–and a storm later trapped Scott and the other two survivors in their tent only 11 miles from their base camp. Scott’s frozen body was found later that year.
After his historic Antarctic journey, Amundsen established a successful shipping business. He later made attempts to become the first explorer to fly over the North Pole. In 1925, in an airplane, he flew within 150 miles of the goal. In 1926, he passed over the North Pole in a dirigible just three days after American explorer Richard E. Byrd had apparently done so in an aircraft.
Today on December 14, 1814, the Royal Navy defeats a hastily assembled squadron of American ships at the Battle of Lake Borgne.
The Battle of Lake Borgne took place during the War of 1812 in the southern theatre of the United States. The naval battle pitted the well-equipped British Navy against an outnumbered, hastily assembled group of U.S. gunboats. The British had suffered a number of losses in North America during the war and were now focused on invading New Orleans. British Admiral, Alexander Cochrane, arrived off the coast of Louisiana on December 9th and ordered his fleet to hunt out and destroy any American naval resistance.
The British armed 42 long boats with at least one 12 to 24 pounder carronade, as well as three gigs each mounting a long brass 12 pounder cannon. The American squadron had five Jeffersonian-class gunboats, two sloops-of-war (single gundeck ships), and one armed schooner. The British rowed for more than a day before eventually finding the American blockade. They divided into three squadrons (as seen in the picture) and advanced toward their enemy under fire. The engagement lasted only two hours. However, the Americans were still able to inflict considerable damage to the British boats before finally surrendering.
The British victory gave them full control over the surrounding lakes and seaways, providing a safe launch pad for assaulting their main target of New Orleans. While the American defeat at Lake Borgne caused widespread panic among the local population, it did provide Andrew Jackson with more time to prepare the city’s defenses. The main land assault of the Battle of New Orleans came to head a few weeks later on January 8, 1815. Jackson successfully mounted a brave defense against the far superior British Army and save the city from invasion.
Suarez, Messi and Ramos are leading the Spanish Empire, the strongest team (on a paper) on the Imaginary European Championship 1748.
Read more on website: http://ifh.world/hr/team/117_Cpanjolsko_carstvo
Queen Nzingha and The Eagle are a part of who GOD has created me to represent! When you know your worth NO ONE can make you feel, think, or believe otherwise. In fact, those silly enough to attempt to indulge in foolishness are exactly that. Those who would attempt to indulge while also referring to themselves as queens are not even queens in training. A true QUEEN like the EAGLE NEVER relies on the gains of others as they kill their own prey, they do not seek to move in on the territory of others as they are too busy taking care of their business and their families, seeking the SUN (GOD) as their source of protection. However, a true NZINGHA QUEEN and the EAGLE will take out its enemies and you won't even see them coming until its too late. Too many chicks (It's not a good thing to be called a chick) are walking around referring to themselves as QUEENS while behaving like pigeons. As an educator, it's my duty to open the classroom and school some folks. Ladies, raise your children and STOP chasing fashions, trends, how to be ratchet, men, other people's men, and other things that misdirect your destiny! Work on becoming a true QUEEN/EAGLE so you can soar. Class Dismissed!!! #africanqueen#egypt#professor#classroom#trainingsession#personaldevelopment#professionaldevelopment#historyclass#genus#species#pooltype#queen#eagle
@afatherslove54 @boochiejr @d.aiken_and_associates @ablastfilms_ceo @harriet1913 @gregmurrell @destin.nation
The Youtube Rewind 2018 was trash but it's a good source of memes /// Also, if would like to chat with others about history related topics or need help for AP history classes, please join my discord, link in bio‼️‼️‼️ “King Henry VIII (1491-1547) ruled England for 36 years, presiding over sweeping changes that brought his nation into the Protestant Reformation. He famously married a series of six wives in his search for political alliance, marital bliss and a healthy male heir. His desire to annul his first marriage without papal approval led to the creation of a separate Church of England. Of his marriages, two ended in annulment, two in natural deaths and two with his wives’ beheadings for adultery and treason. His children Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I would each take their turn as England’s monarch.” (history.com)
❓❓❓ As a result of the Protestant Reformation, a group of Catholic church officials held a series of meetings called what?
Remember that hand chain or necklaces piece is coming up for #historyclass at Antigua Girls High School est. 1886 next term stock up on your beads and more at VAB Tech & Supplies located on Old Parham Road in the yellow and blue Quality Muffler building
We open from 8:00am to 6:00pm
Today on December 13, 1862, Union forces are decisively beaten after their disastrous attack at the Battle of Fredericksburg.
The Battle of Fredericksburg was one of the first major conflicts during the initial phases of the American Civil War. President Abraham Lincoln recently appointed General Ambrose Burnside as the commander of the Potomac Army. Lincoln became increasingly frustrated with the incumbent General McClellan after he failed to make any significant inroads into enemy territory. The Union government was eager to launch another attack against the Confederate’s defensive positions. Burnside severely doubted his qualifications to lead the army, but reluctantly accepted the promotion nonetheless. He hastily advanced a large force into the heart of Virginia to pursue his enemy.
The Confederate Army was under the leadership of General Robert E. Lee who recently positioned himself on a heavily fortified hill near Fredericksburg. Lee was undoubtedly the more esteemed and competent military man. He was confident that his forces held an impregnable position overlooking the town. All he needed to do was wait for the enemy to approach. Military strategists suggest it should have been obvious that any frontal assault against Lee would have been foolish. Nevertheless, Burnside ordered his soldiers to charge up the hill and attack the Confederate position head-on. His order quickly proved to be a monumental mistake. The defenders handily repulsed wave after wave of assaults. Many were slaughter by heavy artillery fire while attempting to retreat.
The Union army incurred more than 6,000 casualties in less than two hours. The Battle of Fredericksburg turned out to be one of the most lopsided victories of the entire civil war. Burnside benefited from having more soldiers, better equipment, and more supplies, but was ultimately let down by poor strategy. He was quickly replaced following the battle, as they were desperate to find a man capable of measuring up to Lee. Three weeks later, Lincoln gained a much needed morale boost after winning the Battle of Stones River.
“The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) was the second of the four major Arab caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. This caliphate was centered on the Umayyad dynasty, hailing from Mecca. Under the Umayyads, the caliphate territory grew rapidly. The Islamic Caliphate became one of the largest unitary states in history, and one of the few states to ever extend direct rule over three continents (Africa, Europe, and Asia). The Umayyads incorporated the Caucasus, Transoxiana, Sindh, the Maghreb, and the Iberian Peninsula ( Al-Andalus ) into the Muslim world. At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate covered 5.79 million square miles and included 62 million people (29% of the world’s population), making it the fifth largest empire in history in both area and proportion of the world’s population.” (courses.lumenlearning.com)
❓❓❓ Which Frankish leader stopped the Muslim advance into Europe?
#OnThisDay in 1913, the ‘Mona Lisa’ is recovered! Boosted from the Louvre two years prior, Leonardo da Vinci's masterpiece is recovered from a hotel room in Florence that is registered to former museum security guard Vincenzo Peruggia. 'Mona Lisa' makes its way back to the Louvre while Peruggia makes his way to prison for 14 months 🕵️♂️🎨
Yarmolenko, Akinfeev and Konoplyanka are leading the Russian Empire on the Imaginary European Championship 1748.
Read more on website Imaginary Football History http://ifh.world/hr/team/116_Rusko_carstvo
Study the change of the French territory through the centuries by comparing the full rosters in 1030, 1477, 1648 and 1748.
Lewandowski, Malinovsky and Szczesny are leading the the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth on the Imaginary European Championship 1748.
Read more on IFH: http://ifh.world/hr/team/113_Poljsko-Litvansko_kraljevstvo
Study the change of the Ottoman Empire territory through the centuries by comparing the full rosters in 1477, 1580 and 1748 on website Imaginary Football History
Ottoman Empire 1477 http://ifh.world/hr/team/87_Osmansko_Carstvo
Ottoman Empire 1580 http://ifh.world/hr/team/100_Osmansko_Carstvo
Ottoman Empire 1748 http://ifh.world/hr/team/111_Osmansko_carstvo
Your favorite kit of the Imaginary European Championship 1648?
Kingdom of Sweden http://ifh.world/en/team/104_The_Kingdom_of_Sweden
Cossack Hetmanate http://ifh.world/en/team/107_The_Cossack_hetmanate
Portuguese Empire http://ifh.world/en/team/103_Portuguese_Empire
Kingdom of France http://ifh.world/en/team/105_The_Kingdom_of_France
Principality of Transylvania http://ifh.world/en/team/106_The_Principality_of_Transylvania
Union of the Crowns http://ifh.world/en/team/108_Union_of_the_Crowns
Spanish Netherlands http://ifh.world/en/team/109_Spanish_Netherlands
Habsburg Hereditary Lands http://ifh.world/en/team/110_Habsburg_Hereditary_Lands
Hazard, De Bruyne and Varane are leading the Spanish Netherlands on the Imaginary European Championship 1648.
Read more on a webiste Imaginary Football History http://ifh.world/hr/team/109_Cpanjolska_Nizozemska
Neustadter, Konoplyanka and Zinchenko are leading the Cossack Hetmanate on the Imaginary European Championship 1648.
Read more on webiste Imaginary Football History http://ifh.world/en/team/107_The_Cossack_hetmanate
Erdély or Transylvania became a principality in the second half of the 16th century, as a result of the accord between its nobility and the new Hungarian king from the Habsburg family. Its nobility considered themselves the bearers of the tradition of the Kingdom of Hungary, whose large portion of territory came under Ottoman rule during the 16th century.
Read more on: http://ifh.world/hr/team/106_Knezevina_Erdelj
Higuain, Aubameyang and Pogba are leading the kingdom of France on the Imaginary European Championship 1648.
The Reformation and the Counter-Reformation deeply shook the life in France in the 16th and the 17th century. In the first half and around the mid-17th century France engaged in wars against the Austrian and Spanish branches of the Habsburgs, and came out of them not only with numerous territorial gains, but also as the biggest European continental power.
Read more on: http://ifh.world/en/team/105_Francusko_kraljevstvo
Which team of the Imaginary European Championship 1580 is Your favorite?
County of Holland:
http://ifh.world/en/team/95_County_of_Holland Kingdom of Denmark:
Kingdom of Ireland:
Lands of the Hungarian Crown:
Sigurðsson, Eriksen and Zlatan are leading the Kingdom of Denmark on the Imaginary European Championship 1580
Lutheranism achieved hegemony during the 16thcentury in the area under the rule of the Oldenburg dynasty that ruled the Kingdom of Denmark from 1448 to 1863, and whose core was located on the peninsula of Jutland, the surrounding islands, and the region of Scania.
Read more on: http://ifh.world/hr/team/96_Kraljevina_Danska
Özyakup, Wijnaldum and Memphis are leading the County of Holland on the Imaginary European Championship 1580
The County of Holland, comprising of cities such as Amsterdam and Rotterdam, constituted a small but economically powerful, part of the Habsburg lands in Burgundy. Its elites would, in the context of expanding the Reformation in the second half of the 16th century, begin their decades-long process of gaining independence from the central rule in Madrid. Read more on: http://ifh.world/en/team/95_Grofovija_Holland
Kramarić, Badelj and Iličić are leading the Kingdom of Slavonia on the Imaginary European Championship 1477.
The Kingdom of Slavonia (Regnum Sclauoniae) was not a kingdom in the usual meaning of that word, but an area which possessed a certain degree of autonomy within the Lands of the Hungarian Crown. In the period between the 13th and the 16th century its territory almost overlapped with that of the Diocese of Zagreb. Continue reading on http://ifh.world/en/team/92_Kraljevina_Slavonija
Griezmann, Hazard and Van Dijk are leading the Lands of the Duke of Burgundy. Maybe the strongest team on the Imaginary European Championship 1477 so far?
During the 15th century, the duke of Burgundy from the Capet family held under his supreme rule the territorially disconnected complex of cities, counties, and duchies in Western Europe. As such, it represented an important trade hub, as well as a focal point of cultural standards. Read more on: http://ifh.world/en/team/93_Zemlje_burgundskog_vojvode
Akinfeev and Dzyuba are leading the Principality of Moscow on the Imaginary European Championship 1477.
The turning point in the ascension of the Principality of Moscow happened at the beginning of the 14th century, when the Tatar Khan confirmed the Prince of Moscow and his successors in the title of “Grand Prince,” by taking it away from Kiev, as well as their right to collect taxes in all principalities with the help from their intermediaries. In the 15th century, they succeeded to free themselves from the “Tatar yoke” through their military power, and started an offensive to “gather the rest of the principalities of the Land of the Rus.” Read more on:http://ifh.world/en/team/91_Moskovska_knezevina
Ramos, Busqets and Balotelli are leading the the Crown of Castile and Aragon on the Imaginary European Championship 1477.
The marriage between Fernand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile from 1469, had happened mainly to preserve them on the throne, as their rights to the throne were seriously disputed. In the beginning, it represented a mere personal alliance, since both states retained their own existing sovereign institutions and their own legislation. However, the future would soon show that it had marked a crucial stage in the process of creating a unitary state of Spain. Read more on http://ifh.world/hr/team/90_Kruna_Kastilje_i_Aragona
Eriksen, Forsberg and Sigurdsson are leading the Kalmar Union on the Imaginary European Championship 1477.
The Kalmar Union was a Scandinavian union formed at Kalmar, Sweden , in June 1397, which brought the kingdoms of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark together under a single monarch until 1523. Read more on website Imaginary Football History: http://ifh.world/en/team/89_Kalmarska_unija
Aubameyang, Mahrez and Pogba are leading the Kingdom of France on the Imaginary European Championship 1477.
France ended the Hundred Years' War (1337 – 1453) as the victor. The hard-fought success of the house of Valois in securing the French crown helped insure that France would not become a realm in name only, partitioned among numerous independent princes. It would become a strong centralized state.
Read more on: http://ifh.world/en/team/88_Kraljevina_Francuska
Džeko, Arda and Matić are leading the Ottoman Empire on the Imaginary European Championship 1477.
The Ottoman Empire was created by Turkish tribes in Anatolia (Asia Minor). After the fall of Constantinople (1453), they engaged in an unstoppable conquest of Southeast Europe. It was a theocratic state, where religion represented the only important identity for a person.
Read more on : http://ifh.world/en/team/87_Osmansko_Carstvo
The Imaginary European Championship 1477.
In the second half of the 15th century some parts of Europe entered the cultural period of the Renaissance. The Ottoman Empire began an unrelenting spread of its territory in Southeastern Europe. The Burgundian Wars over prosperous lands of the Duke of Burgundy take place in Western Europe. The Grand Principalitiy of Moscow increases its power in the East. England finds itself in the throes of a civil war. The Crowns of Castile and Aragon join their forces. Read more on website IFH: http://ifh.world/hr/year/28_1477
Izlaganje o web stranici Imaginary Football History (http://ifh.world/en) na godišnjoj skupštini HUNP-a (Hrvatska udruga nastavnika povijesti). U Zagrebu, 3.III.2018. Hvala na pozivu.
Presentation about the website Imaginary Football History (http://ifh.world/en) on a seminar of the CHTA (Croatian History Teachers Association). Zagreb, March 3, 2018. Thank You for the invitation.