Gustave Flaubert, (born December 12, 1821, Rouen, France - died May 8, 1880, Croisset), novelist regarded as the prime mover of the realist school of French literature and best known for his masterpiece, Madame Bovary (1857), a realistic portrayal of bourgeois life, which led to a trial on charges of the novel’s alleged immorality.
Madame Bovary cost the author five years of hard work. Du Camp, who had founded the periodical Revue de Paris, urged him to make haste, but he would not. The novel, with the subtitle Moeurs de province (“Provincial Customs”), eventually appeared in installments in the Revue from October 1 to December 15, 1856. The French government then brought the author to trial on the ground of his novel’s alleged immorality, and he narrowly escaped conviction (January–February 1857). The same tribunal found the poet Charles Baudelaire guilty on the same charge six months later.
To refresh himself after his long application to the dull world of the bourgeoisie in Madame Bovary, Flaubert immediately began work on Salammbô, a novel about ancient Carthage, in which he set his sombre story of Hamilcar’s daughter Salammbô, an entirely fictitious character, against the authentic historical background of the revolt of the mercenaries against Carthage in 240–237 BC. His transformation of the dry record of Polybius into richly poetic prose is comparable to Shakespeare’s treatment of Plutarch’s narrative in the lyrical descriptions in Antony and Cleopatra. A play, Le Château des coeurs (The Castle of Hearts, 1904), written in 1863, was not printed until 1880.
Jean Piaget was born on August 9, 1896, in Neuchâtel, Switzerland, becoming an expert on the study of mollusks by his teen years. Over the course of his later career in child psychology, he identified four stages of mental development that chronicled young people's journeys from basic object identification to highly abstract thought. The recipient of an array of honors, Piaget died on September 16, 1980, in Geneva, Switzerland.
In 1920, working in collaboration with Théodore Simon at the Alfred Binet Laboratory in Paris, Piaget evaluated the results of standardized reasoning tests that Simon had designed. The tests were meant to measure child intelligence and draw connections between a child’s age and the nature of his errors. For Piaget it raised new questions about the way that children learn.
Over the course of his six-decade career in child psychology, Piaget also identified four stages of mental development. The first is called the "sensorimotor stage," which involves learning through motor actions and takes place when children are 0–2 years old. During the "preoperation stage," children aged 3–7 develop intelligence through the use of symbolic language, fantasy play and natural intuition. During the "concrete operational stage," children 8–11 develop cognitively through the use of logic that is based on concrete evidence. "Formal operations," the fourth and final stage, involves 12-to-15-year-olds forming the ability to think abstractly with more complex understandings of logic and cause and effect.
Piaget called his collective theories on child development a "genetic epistemology." He also relied on the concept of schemas, defined as the cognitive structures and frameworks through which we understand the world, to help further explain his developmental theories.
Born on November 12, 1915, in Cherbourg, France, French literary philosopher Roland Barthes was educated at the Sorbonne, and went on to help establish structuralism as one of the leading intellectual movements of the 20th century. .
His work made important advances in the areas of semiotics, anthropology and post-structuralism. Barthes died in Paris in 1980.
Barthes wrote several books over his teaching career, including Writing Degree Zero (1953), Criticism and Truth (1966) and S/Z (1970), which analyzed the fiction of Honoré de Balzac's Sarrasine.
Barthes became known as a leading critic of his time with his 1977 book, A Lover's Discourse, which sold more than 60,000 copies in his native country. The book was translated into other languages to reach audiences throughout Europe and in America. .
Barthes's works influenced structuralism, semiotics and anthropology.
An influential thinker, Barthes delved into complex theoretical concepts and was skilled as an interpreter and a disseminator. .
He questioned how much one could understand the written word in relation to speech, stating in Image-Music-Text (1977): "For writing can tell the truth on language, but not the truth on the real... ."
Influenced by his mother's death, in October 1977—an event that left him devastated—Barthes wrote his final book, La Chambre Claire (Camera Lucida), discussing photography as a mean of communication, in 1980.
Poucas pessoas tem o entendimento de assimilar o sucesso do outro, se referindo a esse sucesso como sorte acreditando que o trabalho e o talento que cada ser humano tem pouco importam.🍀🍀🍀🍀🍀🍀🍀 Toda pessoa é capaz de desenvolver uma habilidade na qual se torna destaque. Um trabalho manual como de uma bordadeira tem tanto valor como de um grande gestor. Todos tem o intuito de se realizarem através de suas aptidões. 🍀🍀🍀🍀🍀🍀🍀 A filosofia também contribui com suas definições sobre como alcançar seu MINDSET.🍀🍀🍀🍀🍀🍀🍀 🍀 Aristóteles acreditava que a felicidade é o maior desejo do ser humano, ou seja, cultive as boas virtudes e alcançara a felicidade. 🍀 Epicuro dizia que a origem da felicidade está na mistura do equilíbrio e a temperança. A máxima deste filósofo é “ NADA É SUFICIENTE PARA QUEM O SUFICIENTE É POUCO” 🍀 Nietzsche afirmou que viver pacificamente e sem qualquer preocupação era um desejo das pessoas medíocres e que não valorizam a vida. Ser feliz é ser capaz de provar dessa força vital, através da superação de dificuldades e criando formas diferentes de viver. 🍀 José Ortega y Gasset aceita que todos os seres humanos têm potencial e desejo de ser feliz. Isto quer dizer que cada um define o que irá fazê-lo feliz; se conseguir construir a sua vida de acordo com os seus desejos, será feliz.
Jules Verne was born in the seaport of Nantes, where he was trained to follow in his father's footsteps as a lawyer, but quit the profession early in life to write for magazines and the stage. .
His collaboration with the publisher Pierre-Jules Hetzel led to the creation of the Voyages extraordinaires, a widely popular series of scrupulously researched adventure novels including Journey to the Center of the Earth (1864), Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (1870), and Around the World in Eighty Days (1873).
Verne is generally considered a major literary author in France and most of Europe, where he has had a wide influence on the literary avant-garde and on surrealism.
His reputation is markedly different in Anglophone regions, where he has often been labeled a writer of genre fiction or children's books, largely because of the highly abridged and altered translations in which his novels are often reprinted.
Verne has been the second most-translated author in the world since 1979, ranking between Agatha Christie and William Shakespeare. He has sometimes been called the "Father of Science Fiction", a title that has also been given to H. G. Wells and Hugo Gernsback.