In an effort to discover what caused the Great Permian extinction about 252 million years ago, scientists at the University of Washington have conducted a new study. .
Up to 96% of all marine species and 70% of land animals were killed off during the Great Permian extinction, an event that is considered the worst mass extinction in the history of our planet. It is thought that during the Permian extinction, volcanoes in Siberia released so much carbon dioxide into the atmosphere that Earth's temperature went up by about 10 degrees Celsius. .
This new study suggests the Great Permian extinction was caused primarily by rapidly increasing temperatures. The researchers made their conclusion after examining marine fossil records and using a climate model with Earth’s configuration during the Permian to recreate the effects of rising temperatures 252 million years ago. .
New SOCCOM research published this week in Nature is the first to show how the melting of the Antarctic ice sheet will affect future climate. The study finds that as Antarctic ice sheets melt, atmospheric warming will slow, while speeding up sea level rise.⠀
Observations show that the Antarctic ice sheet has been melting faster in recent years. The SOCCOM team found that by the year 2100, sea level could rise as much as 10 inches more than the previous estimate of approximately 30 inches by 2100. In addition to slowing warming and increasing sea level, the melting of the Antarctic ice sheet will change precipitation regimes because the tropical rain belt will shift north. ⠀
Another SOCCOM team has deployed robotic floats throughout the Southern Ocean that are gathering temperature, salinity, and biological and chemical information about the ocean. Senior author Joellen Russell of University of Arizona said her next steps are evaluating climate models against the observations from the SOCCOM floats to see what else the models might be missing.⠀
Who says the Southern Ocean is inaccessible? Anyone who's ever taken the long journey there on an icebreaker! Learn more about the Southern Ocean and the how scientists are unlocking its mysteries on the @SOCCOMproject. . . .
Despite its importance to the Earth’s climate, its rough winds and inaccessibility have kept the biogeochemical dynamics of the Southern Ocean essentially an enigma to scientists. SOCCOM, aims to collect as much information as possible about the Southern Ocean and its connection to the climate. Using 200 autonomous floats, SOCCOM has been taking measuements on the Southern Ocean’s oxygen, nitrate, and carbon content in order to investigate its role in the global carbon cycle. It’s clear that the Southern Ocean absorbs enormous amounts of anthropogenic carbon dioxide, but as it continues to be flushed with carbon dioxide, the absorption power of the Southern Ocean will begin to wane, and Southern Ocean sponge may only be able to hold back the effects of climate change for so long. The data records from SOCCOM can help predict how it will change over time depending on how the world’s carbon output changes.
Photo from R/V Polarstern by Hannah Zanowski.
Who says the Southern Ocean is inaccessible? Anyone who's ever taken the long journey there on an icebreaker!⠀
Despite its importance to the Earth’s climate, its rough winds and inaccessibility have kept the biogeochemical dynamics of the Southern Ocean essentially an enigma to scientists. SOCCOM, aims to collect as much information as possible about the Southern Ocean and its connection to the climate. Using 200 autonomous floats, SOCCOM has been taking measuements on the Southern Ocean’s oxygen, nitrate, and carbon content in order to investigate its role in the global carbon cycle. It’s clear that the Southern Ocean absorbs enormous amounts of anthropogenic carbon dioxide, but as it continues to be flushed with carbon dioxide, the absorption power of the Southern Ocean will begin to wane, and Southern Ocean sponge may only be able to hold back the effects of climate change for so long. The data records from SOCCOM can help predict how it will change over time depending on how the world’s carbon output changes.⠀
Photo from R/V Polarstern by Hannah Zanowski.⠀
What is ‘hothouse earth’ or ‘runaway climate change’? ‘Hothouse earth’ is a possible consequence of climate change identified by scientists, whereby the climate could stabilise at global temperatures 4-5 degrees C higher than pre-industrial temperatures (i.e leaving many places uninhabitable). This COULD start happening when temperatures reach 2 degrees C higher (we’re already at 1) due to altering ‘feedback loops’ which normally help cool the earth - to instead cause warming. An example is if large amounts of arctic ice melts this will vastly reduce the amount of sunlight reflected back to space, another is if the permafrost in the Northern hemisphere thaws this will release large amounts of greenhouse gases. Obviously these things are based on studies and models and difficult to prove completely, but why oh why would we not try and prevent it anyway?? Follow the link in my bio to a petition to the government from @friends_earth 👌
🔮Climate models are generated by very powerful supercomputers that predict averages or statistical ranges of climate conditions in future seasons and decades. They include the effects of a changing ocean and atmospheric chemistry, which don’t have an impact on the atmosphere over the span of a few days. Short term weather forecasts are highly accurate and have improved in the last decade. Weather forecasts are based on statistical relationships between current conditions and atmospheric conditions for the next few months.
#FreshHotScience ~ Though it looks like a fire itself, this is actually a map of the carbon emitted from forest fires in the Northwest Territories (NWT) of Canada during the mega fire year of 2014, in which 94 million tons of carbon went up in smoke. That’s equivalent to taking all the oil spilled during the Deepwater Horizon disaster, multiplying what you’ve got by 200x, and then burning every last drop. These mega fires were so big they burned off half the carbon that all of Canada’s forests and soils absorb in one year. In other words, you cannot think about using land to mitigate climate change without accounting for wildfires, and right now fires are not integrated into any climate mitigation plans. Here, red indicates higher emissions per square meter (the grey splotches are lakes). This work was published recently by a team at @nauflagstaff and WHRC scientist Dr. Brendan Rogers. 🖇 in bio. // Map & analysis by Rogers // #ScienceForTheWorld
Happy Tuesday, earthlings!! Check out episode 16 of the pod! This week, we talk to Dr. Kate Marvel about the present and future of climate modeling. Dr. Marvel is a climate scientist and a writer and a theoretical physicist by training. She is now an associate research scientist at NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies and Columbia University’s Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics. Kate's research focuses on how human activities affect the climate and what we can expect in the future, using satellite observations, computer models, and basic physics to study the human impact on variables from rainfall patterns to cloud cover. Spoiler- clouds are CRAZY. Link in bio! #marvel#nasa#climatemodel#climatescience#physics#climate#science#climatechange#humanimpact#podcast#future#important
Best day of the week is Friday! Not because it is time for a well-deserved weekend, but because we at #CentreforIceandClimate#Nielsbohrinstitute have a joined lunch with an invited speaker treating us with some of the most novel results within #icecore research and #paleoclimate afterwards. And this almost every Friday!
Today Ayako Abe-Ouchi from the university of Tokyo gave an exciting talk on modelling the last #deglaciation with Global Climate model #GCM developed in Japan. During the last glacial period, the North Atlantic region experienced a series of Dansgaard–Oeschger cycles in which climate abruptly alternated between warm and cold periods (15 degree changes in Greenland within decades!!). The reason for these abrupt climate changes is still debated.
Ayako Abe-Ouchi and co-workers investigated the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation #AMOC and found large self-sustained oscillations resulting in high latitude temperature change similar to Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles only under a limited range of CO2 and #freshwater forcing, helping constraining the potential mechanisms.
#DO -cycles #climatemodel#ice2ice#universityofTokyo#AMOC#paleoclimate#glacial#tippingpoints#icecore#KIFtakeover
Everything is frozen in time in the northeast. Trees stopped budding. Grass isn't growing. Birds aren't chirping. It quiet, its lonely, it's like January. It should be cold for a few days in April, not for weeks with a snow storm. Mother nature is not happy, climate change is breaking us, and our home down
📝 US climate scientist Warren Washington with a student in 1973. Less than a century ago, climate models were little more than an idea; basic equations roughly sketched out on paper.
Climate models used by scientists today, however, rely on some of the world’s most advanced supercomputers.
Explore our new interactive timeline, where we chart more than 50 key moments in the history of climate modelling, including prominent figures, technological advancement and key publications. Link in bio. 📷: NCAR / Image 2: ENIAC programmers, 1950 / Image 3: Hansen et al, 1988.
PNAS is here! Pictured is a supraglacial river on the Greenland ice sheet. Laurence C. Smith et al. measured meltwater discharge in a supraglacial river for 72 hours in July 2015 while mapping its upstream catchment using high-resolution satellite and drone images. The data were used to calibrate a hydrological model that yielded more accurate estimates of the volume and timing of runoff compared with climate models, suggesting that supraglacial river catchment size and shape influence the timing and volume of meltwater entering moulins and the ice sheet bed. See the article by Laurence C. Smith et al. at www.pnas.org. Image courtesy of @joshhaner /@nytimes.
Stephen Schneider helped show that humans are active contributors to changes in the climate system. He was a key figure in the success of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and an adviser to eight U.S. administrations. He embraced the power of climate modeling and, after finding fault with his own 1971 climate cooling hypothesis due to more data and better models years later, he published what his mistakes had been. In 2007, he shared the Nobel Peace Prize with former Vice President Al Gore “for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change”. bit.ly/NASschneider
@Columbia, @NASAGoddard, @Stanford, @NobelPrize_Org, @IPCC
This is a very interesting Instagram post from NASA (a repost from @nasaclimatechange)! According to NASA scientists know today that half of the greenhouse gases that are released by human activites are absorbed by the Earth's ecosystems and that the rest stays in the atmosphere. Of those 50% of the greenhouse gases that are absorbed 25% are absorbed by the vegitation on land and 25% by the ecosystems in the oceans. These facts shows how big the problem is and that it is possible to stop the Global Warming by cutting down hour greenhouse gas emissions. This gives at least some hope for the future. 🌍🤓