Often when a Shuttle was landing after a mission, the crew member in control was landing the vehicle for the very first time! Only commanders landed the Shuttle, usually after serving in at least one previous mission as the right seat non-flying “pilot”. There’s no practical way to practice landing an actual Shuttle so crew learnt via a combination of simulator sessions, actual landings in a modified business jet and by serving as pilot on missions. Most commanders let their pilots fly the shuttle briefly during the final approach to landing to get some “stick time” in preparation for when they move from the right seat to the left as commanders of their own mission and their first landing. Exactly when in the landing process the commander took manual control (control stick steering) of the vehicle was variable, and, technically the Shuttle was capable of landing itself, however every Shuttle landing in the program was manually flown. The aircraft used for training (Image 2) was a highly modified Gulfstream GII, dubbed the Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA) that had identical instrumentation and controls to the Shuttle on the left side only. (Image 3) To mimic the high drag and steep approach the STA reversed its engines in flight and flew with its main landing gear down. Computers adjusted the fly-by-wire inputs to closely resemble the feel of the Shuttle during the approach. =
[Sources] Images: nasa.gov, (2012) Text/data: Shuttle Crew Operations Manual (NASA, 2008)
There were some calls to create a military astronaut space program, building on the high-altitude flights that test pilots were already conducting. President Dwight Eisenhower initially agreed, but upon speaking with some advisors, he ultimately backed a proposal for a non-military space agency called NASA that would send the first astronauts into space. NASA was formed in 1958 from the former National Advisory Committee on Astronautics (NACA), and several other centers.
In 1959, the new agency selected seven astronauts from a pool of military test pilots to simplify the astronaut selection procedure, according to NASA. The first astronauts had to meet several stringent requirements: be under 40 years old; be less than 5 feet, 11 inches tall; be in excellent physical condition; have extensive engineering experience; be a test pilot school graduate; and have a minimum of 1,500 hours of flying time. Since most military test pilots were white males at the time, this meant that the first astronauts were also of that demographic group.
Two Barbie dolls can accomplish big dreams working together as colleagues! Barbie career-themed sets let young imaginations try out various careers, like those related to space exploration careers. This space-themed set comes with two dolls and accessories to add to the storytelling fun. Plus, Barbie has partnered with Tynker, the game-based platform that teaches kids how to code -- learn how to use simple coding concepts to tell stories about their space missions. Discover a universe of possibilities with Barbie astronaut doll, who can blast into space wearing a space suit with white gloves, boots and a cool snap-on helmet. A white shimmery material with blue and red details on the suit is so out-of-this-world! Barbie space scientist doll helps launch the astronaut into space in a white coat, blue shirt, purple pants and shoes; goggles and a laptop let her explore the galaxy, too. Kids will love discovering more about these professions because with Barbie, you can be anything! Includes Barbie astronaut doll and Barbie space scientist doll wearing career-themed outfits and accessories. Dolls cannot stand alone. Colors and decorations may vary. #Barbie#Doll#BarbieDoll#Pack#BarbiePack#Career#BarbieCareer#Careers#BarbieCareers#Astronaut#BarbieAstronaut#SpaceScientist#BarbieSpaceScientist#YouCanBeAnything#PuedesSerLoQueQuieras#TuPuedesSerLoQueQuieras